FOOD ALLERGIES

Food allergy is a response of immune system that happens after eating a specific food. Even a minor quantity of the food (allergy-causing food) can trigger symptoms i.e. hives, digestive problems or breathing problems.

Allergy

It occurs when body’s immune system reacts to certain harmful substance that cause an allergic reaction. Substances that trigger allergic reactions called as allergens.

Food Allergy

Food allergy is a response of immune system that happens after eating a specific food. Even a minor quantity of the food (allergy-causing food) can trigger symptoms i.e. hives, digestive problems or breathing problems.

FOOD ALLERGIES by nutrition hopes

Prevalence of Food Allergy

Food allergy affects approximately 2.5% of the population. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention food allergies affect 4% – 6% of children and 4% of adults.

The prevalence of food allergies has increased from around 3% of the population in 1960 to around 7% in 2018, worldwide.

Types of Food Allergies

Eight foods that cause most food allergy reactions:

    • Milk
    • Egg
    • Peanut
    • Tree nut
    • Wheat
    • Soy
    • Fish
    • Shellfish
    • Sesame

Component in Food that cause Food Allergies

  1. Milk:

Two main proteins in cow’s milk that can cause an allergic reaction:

  • Whey
  • Casein
  1. Wheat:

Some proteins present in wheat that can cause allergic reaction are given below:

  • Wheat albumins
  • Globulins
  • Gluten
  1. Egg:

Three proteins cause egg allergy:

  • Ovomucoid
  • Conalbumin
  • Ovalbumin
  1. Peanut:

The members of the cupin superfamily of proteins cause peanut allergy.

  1. Fish:

The major fish allergen is parvalbumin.

  1. Shell Fish:

Tropomyosins is the component that can cause fish allergy.

  1. Soy:

Soy and soy products including soy milk, formulas and soy sauce.

Sign and Symptoms

The most common food allergy signs and symptoms include:

  • Itching
  • Hives/eczema
  • Trouble in breathing
  • Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Inflammation and swelling of the lips, face, tongue, and throat, or other parts of the body Nasal congestion

Anaphylaxis

Sometimes, food allergy can trigger a severe allergic reaction that is life-threatening called as anaphylaxis. Symptoms including:

  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Sudden drop in blood pressure
  • Rapid pulse rate
  • Dizziness
  • Inflammation or swollen throat
  • Lump sensation in throat
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Can cause a coma or even death.

Risk factors

  • Food allergy risk factors include:

    • Family history
    • Age
    • Asthma
    • Other allergies(such as hay fever or eczema)

Diagnosis

Blood Test Included:

  • Blood test (such as an Immuno-CAP test)
  • Skin prick food allergy test

Nutrients at Risk and their alternative

Food

Nutrients at risk

Alternative foods

Cow’s Milk

· Calcium

· Protein

· Fat

· Vitamin D

 

Protein, Fat, Vitamin D sources:

Meat, poultry, legumes, whole grains, soy beverage, specialized formula

Calcium sources: 

Soy or specialized formula; fortified soy, rice, nut or oat beverage

 

Egg

· Vitamin B12

· Pantothenic acid

· Riboflavin

· Folate

· Biotin

· Protein

· Meat

· Poultry

· Legumes

· Whole grains

Fish, Shellfish

· Niacin

· Vitamin B6

· Vitamin B12

· Vitamin E

· Phosphorus

· Selenium

· Iodine

· Meat

· Poultry

· Grains

· Legumes

· Vegetable oils

Soy

· Thiamine

· Phosphorus

· Riboflavin

· Magnesium

· Vitamin B6

· Iron

· Folate

· Calcium

· Meat

· Whole grains

· Legumes

Wheat

· Thiamine

· Riboflavin

· Niacin

· Selenium

· Biotin

· Protein, fat

· Oats

· Rice

· Quinoa

· Barley

· Corn

· Millet

Nuts

· Niacin

· Vitamin E

· Magnesium

· Manganese

· Chromium

· Meat

· Whole grains

· Legumes

· Vegetable oils

Guidelines for Food Allergies

Guidelines including the avoidance of the following:

    • Foods having allergens, even in small amounts
    • Foods having unknown composition
    • Raw oil derived from foods that can cause allergy
    • Foods having a high risk for cross-contamination

Reference

  1. Morelli, L., Amrani, N., Goulet, O., & Lukito, W. (2019). Lactose intolerance: Clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Global Diabetes Open Access Journal1(1), 1-10.
  2. Deng, Y., Misselwitz, B., Dai, N., & Fox, M. (2015). Lactose intolerance in adults: biological mechanism and dietary management. Nutrients7(9), 8020-8035.
  3. Elli, L., Branchi, F., Tomba, C., Villalta, D., Norsa, L., Ferretti, F., & Bardella, M. T. (2015). Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG21(23), 7110.
  4. Urisu, A., Kondo, Y., & Tsuge, I. (2015). Hen’s egg allergy. Food Allergy: Molecular Basis and Clinical Practice101, 124-130.
  5. Mueller, G. A., Maleki, S. J., & Pedersen, L. C. (2014). The molecular basis of peanut allergy. Current allergy and asthma reports14(5), 429-435.